How can I restore a database backup file (.bak) from SQL Server 2012 into SQL Server 2008 R2?

When you are restoring your sql database from a higher version to a lower version ,you will get error like "Error: The media family on device 'c:\db_temp\1.bak' is incorrectly formed. SQL Server cannot process this media family." . The error message occurs because the SQL Server database files (*.mdf, *.ndf and *.ldf) and backups are not backward compatible.

You can use Generate and Publish Scripts wizard of SQL Server Management Studio (2012 Express)  to solve this problem. Here are the basic steps we need to follow:

A. Generate .sql file of  the database schema and data from SQL Server(2012) by using the Generate and Publish Scripts wizard of SQL Server Management Studio (2012 Express) interface.
    A1. In Object Explorer, expand Databases, right-click a database, point to Tasks, and then click Generate Scripts. Follow the steps in the wizard to script the database objects.

    A2. On the Choose Objects page, Choose Select specific database objects , and click select all button.

    A3. On the Set Scripting Options page, select Save scripts to a specific location and then choose the Advanced button.In Advanced Scripting Options dialog box, set Types of data to script to Schema and Data.  This option is important because this is what generates the data per table.

Set Script USE DATABASE to False

Set Script for Server Version to SQL Server 2008 R2, this option is important for which version of sql server you want to restore it to.

   A4. On the Summary page, Click Pervious to review your selections. Click Next to generate the script of the objects you selected.

B. Connect to the SQL Server (2008 R2), and then run the SQL scripts which was generated in the previous step.
   B1. Connect to the sql server 2008 R2 database

    B2. Open the .SQL file  you have generated in Step A.

   B3. Execute the .sql file.

  B4.  Refresh the Database.